Copyright © 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and prior years as relevant back to 1986 Frank Smyth (and co-authors whenever relevant), to all articles on

All Rights Reserved.

May I print copies? Yes, you may but with limitations. Noncommercial users may print one copy of one article, up to five different articles for your personal use. Noncommercial users who wish to print more than the above must use the form below to indicate how many copies you wish to print of each article and for what purpose. All commercial users must negotiate rates prior to printing by using the form below.

May I copy text? Never. While readers are encouraged to use the various functions provided here to share articles, no one may copy and paste any article or any of its text to disk in order to preserve the integrity of each article. In years past CD-Rom and other commercial information services such as “Uncover” have copied my articles without permission; they have since paid me thousands of dollars in damages for copyright violations as part of multiple plaintiff lawsuits.

May I copy images? Never. Each image is copywritten by the author of the image. Requests for permission to copy or otherwise use any images must be sent directly to the the author of the image.

Are the articles authentic? Yes. Every article posted on appears exactly as it did in the original print or online publication unless otherwise indicated, and any copies, references or quotes should be fully cited accordingly to both the original publication and In the few cases where I have made any minor changes or corrections to the original text, they are marked by brackets [oops!] around any post-publication modifications.

(Readers may also notice: New links have been inserted or embedded into the original text in a few cases. Transliterations of names from languages like Arabic remain identical to the way they appeared in the original publication, so both Osama bin Ladin and Osama bin Laden appear in different articles here. Occasional typos or format mistakes may also occur due to either technological or human errors; please bring them to our attention so we may fix them as soon as possible.)

Is this site legal? You betcha! The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2001 in favor of a writer against The New York Times, saying that writers retained the electronic rights to their printed articles. went up on that premise in 1998, and it includes articles under my byline dating back to 1987. In every case, the original publication also retains (and where relevant, also co-authors) copyright to the same articles. But unlike most publication sites along with commercial services like LexisNexis that charge fees to access articles, offers my articles to readers for free. The above lawsuit against the Times was brought by the National Writers Union, which I first joined in 1988.

Ladan Nekoomaram, a graduate from American University’s masters program in journalism and public affairs, edited this website with the developer.

Thank you for reading! Frank

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